Category Archives: medical ethics

Medical Malpractice in Pennsylvania Expects Change

Paul Justice asked:

Despite the current conditions that American face today, Pennsylvania is expecting change. This change is coming from the way that businesses do business with one another and how industries interact with one another. This change comes from the recent events that have been sweeping our nation at a increased rate. In order avoid economic crisis Pennsylvania officials have decided that the way people treat one another is step 1 in fighting this crisis. The main example that they have is the way the medical malpractice in Pennsylvania is being treated. Medical malpractice is an epidemic that has been sweeping the country for years aiding to many deaths and injuries alike. Despite this problem, Medical malpractice in Pennsylvania has been decreasing ever sine the freeze was first introduced. This along with PA officials coming together to get their state to practice business with higher ethical standards, acting more responsibly, and conducting business in a way so that everyone succeeds is directly affecting the rate of medical malpractice in Pennsylvania.

What many people want to know however is what will happen after the freeze gets unfrozen. A lot of this has to do with who is going to be the next president. For the rates of medical malpractice insurance premiums is expected to be unfrozen in June 2009. Therefore the next president will have a big say in what will happen. Hopefully they will see the importance on people being able to afford general healthcare as well as having the premiums for medical malpractice Pennsylvania to be low enough for practitioners, doctors, and medical institutions alike be able to continue practicing medicine. If for some reason officials do not come up with a viable solution that will allow both parties to be happy we are back to square one. In order to make sure that this does not happen, we must place great importance on the severity of the matter. In doing this it is important to gain the much-needed awareness on the topic so that people truly realize what is going on. Pennsylvania is currently doing this, but it is not enough. We need the entire nation to come together and make it known that we really care about this issue. Medical malpractice in Pennsylvania is decreasing, but what about your state. Medical malpractice is a very serious issue that must be addressed now so that in June we have the proper plan in place.

If you or a loved one has been directly affected by medical malpractice in Pennsylvania, contact a lawyer as soon as possible. They have the superior experience and knowledge in this sector of law that will be able to stand up for you in a court of law. In filing a medical malpractice Pennsylvania suit, you may be able to recover monies to cover your medical expenses, loss of wages, as well as for pain and suffering. An act of medical malpractice is very serious; therefore it is imperative that you do not waste anytime in contacting a lawyer.

The Dilemma of Nanotechnology – Science Vs. Ethics

Tatiana Velitchkov asked:

What is Nanotechnology and why should I care about it?

Nanotechnology, referred to commonly as molecular manufacturing, is making huge strides within scientific and government communities. Despite its growth and the potential impact it will have on society at large, too little emphasis has been placed on the ethical considerations of nanotechnology and the ever-rippling effects of its applications.

The control of molecular matter has led to amazing breakthroughs in medical treatments, which of course is a benefit to mankind. However, the military is hard at work creating powerful weapons that are no larger than any known bacteria. In addition, molecular level surveillance techniques for surreptitiously keeping track of other organizations and individuals are changing the face of military, law enforcement and humankind in general.

Just like with human genome capability and stem cell research breakthroughs, scientists, governments and individuals need to weigh the obvious advantages of nanotechnology against the residual disadvantages. Although the power of nanotechnology is indisputable, the possibilities of irreversible harm from its indiscriminate use must also be taken into consideration.

What are the Social and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology?

This is where social and ethical dilemmas present themselves. As life saving tools, nanotechnology is unsurpassed in its promise of an absolute revolution for medical treatment of previously incurable or untreatable conditions.

Conversely, when this technology is used to manufacture miniature weapons or explosives the infinite possibilities of far-reaching repercussions is a very real prospect. Given that researchers fear that nano-machines can become self replicating, theories abound that their by-product, known in scientific circles as “the gray-goo scenario”, could result in unheard of havoc. In addition nanotechnology has the potential to erode our privacy and freedom by providing human rights violations via monitoring and tracking devices that can invade our everyday lives without our knowledge.

For this reason the social and ethical issues relevant to nanotechnology must be addressed before its many technological innovations are unleashed upon society.

Every action has a reaction and nanotechnology is no different. Whether the anticipated power of nanotechnology ever reaches fruition, as a society we must be prepared to deal with any fallout that may arise from its inception and universal acceptance.

There is no doubt that development of nanotechnology and its many proven advantages, is going to continue, yet as a responsible society we must prepare a social policy that will address the benefits in correlation with the ethical consequences of it effect on life as we know it. Why should society be concerned with the Fallout?

When trying to incorporate nano-technological advances into society, there are a myriad of items that require intensive study, such as: issues regarding equity of disbursement, privacy rights of individuals and/or corporations, security considerations, the effect on the environment and the social and ethical impact on the human race.

As responsible humans who are concerned with passing a legacy of improvement down to upcoming generations, it is essential that we develop and create guidelines and working hypotheses that address the far reaching impact that nanotechnology can have on human lives and on the universe itself.

Questionable Medical Practices

Dr. Johnson C. Philip asked:

Natural science and technology has made enormous progress in the past few centuries, and this has been possible only because of experimentation.  Men everywhere, in their quest to understand the world better, have subjected every conceivable  process to experimentation and possible modification.  This has brought us numerous blessings in the form of modern means  of mass production, faster communication, better medicine, and better mass transportation.  However, careless use of science and technology has brought a number of curses also many of which manifest in the form of pollution.  Many kinds of experimentation in areas which  are ethically doubtful or completely wrong have also brought similar problems, and they are only going to increase with  time.

The products of technology breakthroughs often promise rich financial rewards in certain fields of research and this promise of pot of gold, coupled with the present day greed for money has made many researchers to overlook all kinds of moral obligation.  At the same time, man is becoming more and more daring to perform experiments which he perceives as doubtful or wrong because this adventure gives an expression to his rebellion against God.

Several dozen types of medical researches come in the category cited above, where the ethics of all of it becomes very important.  However, when such ethically doubtful  or wrong experiments  become the  routine practice  in  any  medical establishment, then even the Christians serving there tend to take it all so mechanically that they just overlook or forget the ethical side of it.

It has been widely reported in popular as well as medical publications that presently abortion is being  performed all over the world for the most trivial reason.  This procedure terminates the life of a person created in the image of God, but it has become such a part of many medical personnel that they just do not pause to think  what they are doing.  This attitude has given rise to another experimentation on live aborted fetuses | This is a cruel condemnable practice, but reportedly it is taking place all over the world.  They are using unwanted but lives babies to run all kinds of tests : the effect of chemicals, transplantation, and almost anything which one can conceive.  Some researchers even cut away the body part of these live bodies for harvesting their cells or for using the organs.  Many even do not care to anesthetize them, adding cruelty to the murder of an infant.

It is understood that some of the best cosmetics sold around the world contain cells extracted from the tender bodies of aborted babies.

God has created man in His own image, and in spite of man’s fall he carried that image in himself.  Therefore man is different  from all animals.  A baby, even at the youngest stage, is different from animals in kind.  It is a member of mankind and no one  except a court of law can order a life terminated.

Christians should therefore, never become an active party either in terminating a pregnancy or in conducting experiments on an  aborted baby.   They may never  be able to stop such activities   which go on in their institutions, and thus they might be constrained to become a passive party to it all, they should try their best to avoid active involvement.

Some might argue that there is nothing wrong with such experimentation because no one wants those babies anyway; they would have died sooner or latter.  Therefore  what is the harm if they are used for  something which might benefit the whole of mankind.  This argument depends upon a number of false arguments  – – the chief being that no one wants the baby.  There are many couples who might want to adopt the child if given a chance.  Also, there is no child who God does not love.  In fact, Christians should not contribute their energy to movements which divide children into wanted and unwanted categories.

Second, arguing does not conform to Christian ethics.  We do not evaluate the worth of a person or activity purely on the basis of some assumed worth.  Rather, the  appropriateness of every activity is judged on the basis of what the word of God would say about it.  In contrast to it something is accepted purely on the basis of its value to a great number of people, the people will soon find justification for even the most fallen and rotten activity.

Christians cannot stop all the unethical activities going around them, and they are surely not called to do that.  However, they can try their best to detach themselves from active involvement.  This might not be east because standing for one’s conviction demands a lot of cost.

Hirer Beware! Do’s and Don’ts for Hiring in the Medical Field

John Burke asked:

When I first started doing office management, I had a lot of problems finding good employees. It seemed like the people I was hiring could do the work, but had the wrong attitude.

According to a new article in the Medical Group Management Association’s newsletter, I was using the wrong criteria: “You should hire for attitude and train for skills. Skills don’t mitigate a bad attitude or disruptive personality.”

This is completely true. I remember hiring a young woman who could juggle phones and patients effortlessly, but could not stop complaining about her salary. She felt the older employees did less and made more, and she wound up trying to get her peer coworkers to band together and stage a mutiny.

When that failed, she threatened to quit on the spot if I didn’t give her an increase. Believe it or not, I was a little sorry to see her go.

The article explains what I learned the hard way, and that’s to establish a criteria for any available position. Create a prioritized list and even have those involved in the interviewing process score each candidate, to insure objectivity.

Best of all, were five questions they deemed crucial to the process:

”1. Tell me about the first job you ever had. Because the first job they ever had could have been years ago and unrelated to the one for which they’re applying, applicants don’t expect this question. The answer may reveal their values and ethics.

2. Tell me about the achievements in your life you’re most proud of and the obstacles or problems you had to overcome. The answer indicates what motivates applicants.

3. Tell me about your last performance appraisal. An applicant reveals his/her level of self-esteem and feelings about another’s appraisal.

4. On a scale of 1 to 10, how would you rank yourself as a (insert relevant term)? Then ask what it will take to get to the next number.

5. What one question would you like to ask me? After answering, ask, “Why, of all the questions you could have asked, did you choose that one?” Role reversal is always informative, plus the question reveals an applicant’s No. 1 priority.”

Treating the hiring process as a serious endeavor is crucial to having a good staff. There is no absolute guarantee, but defining exactly what you’re looking for allows you the benefit of finding someone who fits your needs first and foremost. In any case, several of these concepts may not be of much use when applied to situations where several family members work within the same practice.

My first job was working weekends and every summer for my uncle, who was a general practioner. My aunt was his office manager, and part of the reason I worked there was because I earned less than minimum wage.

Now, I loved my aunt and uncle, and I’m grateful for learning about a job so early in life that would become my profession as an adult. But I learned from that experience not to work in the medical equivalent of a mom and pop store.

For one thing, as per my experience, family businesses often pay their employees according to their own personal scale, and not per the industry standard. This usually translates into lower pay and sometimes fewer benefits.

Also, there is a close-knit bond which develops that can be daunting. In a sense, you become a part of their extended family, which can make it hard to be objective about your professional goals.

On the other hand, when I worked for my uncle, he had a woman who worked the reception desk who was having serious marital difficulties. She called in sick twice a month, but was rarely ill (if you know what I mean). Because my aunt liked her and had a personal interest in the woman’s marriage working out, she put up with this behavior until the woman finally just quit because she was moving out of state to go live with her parents.

My aunt had to cover her shifts until a replacement could be found, which of course, illustrates the risk involved for the employer in these more intimate working arrangements.

Medical Industry Based on Risk Causing Monetary Losses and Medical Malpractice in Manhattan

Paul Justice asked:

With all of the recent product contaminations in the last year, consumers must be aware that this type of behavior is only getting worse. Regulations and safety standards are not being as emphasized, as we would like them too. The sector of a business that deals with best practices and ethical decision-making is not being as funded as lets say the sales department, and rightfully so. However this is an important part of a business because if safety and other regulatory practices are not put into effect an entire business can fail due to hazardous means. Medical malpractice in Manhattan does not necessarily only stem from erroneous practice in the hospital or doctors office. It can happen from ill information being reported to medical professionals causing miscommunication to be the vagrant. For medical professionals base their decision making and diagnosis on former information that leads them to come up with a solution or answer. If they are given wrong information they are more likely to commit medical malpractice in Manhattan.

Information these days has been taken took literally or has been stretched and expanded to the point that the primary source of information will not be able to recognize it after people have done their way with it. It is here were our economy has taken a downfall because people have taken on too much risk and not enough assurance. Medical malpractice in Manhattan comes into play in just the same way. Doctors take on too much risk either within surgery or in their treatment plan. However unlike in the financial markets that have the government to bail them out, doctors only have themselves to blame. Medical Malpractice Manhattan can be illustrated by the current economic position because the players are the same. There are some doctors who like to practice on the risky side by not doing all of their homework on type of surgery they are about to perform or the consequences associated with prescribing a certain drug. And there are others who play it safe and take their time in diagnosing their patients, which in turn might not pay out as well. It is the same way in the economic game, and we have seen where that has gotten us. Too many banks and investors took on too much risk that left the rest of us trying to bail them out. In terms of medical malpractice in Manhattan however, there is no one to offer a bail out. And we are dealing with people’s lives not people’s money.

The economic industry and the medical industry are applied on a parallel basis. However, the risks associated in the medical industry are much more detrimental than those in the economic industry. Medical malpractice in Manhattan is what stems from taking on too much risk in the medical industry. Victims that have experienced medical malpractice in Manhattan are equivalent to investors who lost all their funds from stockbrokers making risky moves with their money in our example. If you or a loved one has been harmed from medical professionals making risky decisions with your health, contact a medical malpractice Manhattan lawyer.

Ethics And Legality Of Organ Transplants

Chris Chew asked:

One of the greatest achievements in medical science is organ transplant surgery. People who have failing organs and are doomed to die can now be given a new lease on life by the generosity of organ donors who are giving part of their own bodies to save or enhance the lives of others. However, there are many ethical issues and controversies pertaining to organ transplants.

Discussions on the ethics on organ transplants invariably will attract questions like for instance:-

Can human organs be traded commercially, if not why? Should a person who has already received one transplant be allowed another one? Should alcoholics be given liver transplants, where after all, it was their alcoholism that damages their livers in the first place? What are the sources of organs used in organ transplants operations?

Perhaps the most controversial topics of these ethical debates are about the procurement and distribution of human organs for transplant and are centered on the questions of how do we get the organs and how do we decide who will receive organ transplants?

Since there are always fewer organ donors than there are potential recipients, this fact make the debate on who should get the organ available very emotional and heated which is not surprising because lives are at stake.

To compound the problem, organ transplants are very expensive surgical procedures and only the rich can afford them. Poorer folks may never get the opportunity of a transplant even if they need it more urgently than their richer counterparts. Should the choice of who get the organs be dependant upon who can afford it?

Then there is the issue of not everyone agreeing when death of the donor actually occurs. Is it when the heart and lungs stop functioning or the donor is certified brain dead?

What about consent of the donor? At the present moment, a donor has to expressly agree for organ donor ship in order for organs to be removed except in Singapore which have the controversial Human Organ Transplant Act (HOTA). The Act assumed that all Singapore citizens have consented to be organ donors unless opted out. However, Muslims are exempted from the Act for religious reasons.

Which is the better way to get consent from the donors? By enacting legislations or relying on willing donors?

Since most people can live with only one kidney or one eye, which are organs which can be donated while the donor is still alive. Should the donor be allowed to sell his kidney? The argument against allowing commercial trade on human organs is that it may encourage poor people to sell their organs and even may encourage unethical syndicate organ trading rackets.

There are people suffering and are on the death row waiting for organ transplants to save their lives and decisions about the ethics of organ transplants will have a tremendous impact on them. What is your position on these ethical issues of human organ transplants?

Legal And Ethical Issues Of Organ Transplants

Chris Chew asked:

One of the greatest achievements in medical science is organ transplant surgery. People who have failing organs and are doomed to die can now be given a new lease on life by the generosity of organ donors who are giving part of their own bodies to save or enhance the lives of others. However, there are many ethical issues and controversies pertaining to organ transplants.

Discussions on the ethics on organ transplants invariably will attract questions like for instance:-

Can human organs be traded commercially, if not why? Should a person who has already received one transplant be allowed another one? Should alcoholics be given liver transplants, where after all, it was their alcoholism that damages their livers in the first place? What are the sources of organs used in organ transplants operations?

Perhaps the most controversial topics of these ethical debates are about the procurement and distribution of human organs for transplant and are centered on the questions of how do we get the organs and how do we decide who will receive organ transplants?

Since there are always fewer organ donors than there are potential recipients, this fact make the debate on who should get the organ available very emotional and heated which is not surprising because lives are at stake.

To compound the problem, organ transplants are very expensive surgical procedures and only the rich can afford them. Poorer folks may never get the opportunity of a transplant even if they need it more urgently than their richer counterparts. Should the choice of who get the organs be dependant upon who can afford it?

Then there is the issue of not everyone agreeing when death of the donor actually occurs. Is it when the heart and lungs stop functioning or the donor is certified brain dead?

What about consent of the donor? At the present moment, a donor has to expressly agree for organ donor ship in order for organs to be removed except in Singapore which have the controversial Human Organ Transplant Act (HOTA). The Act assumed that all Singapore citizens have consented to be organ donors unless opted out. However, Muslims are exempted from the Act for religious reasons.

Which is the better way to get consent from the donors? By enacting legislations or relying on willing donors?

Since most people can live with only one kidney or one eye, which are organs which can be donated while the donor is still alive. Should the donor be allowed to sell his kidney? The argument against allowing commercial trade on human organs is that it may encourage poor people to sell their organs and even may encourage unethical syndicate organ trading rackets.

There are people suffering and are on the death row waiting for organ transplants to save their lives and decisions about the ethics of organ transplants will have a tremendous impact on them. What is your position on these ethical issues of human organ transplants?

Mental Health Ethics: Euthanasia

Pedro Gondim asked:

Euthanasia (Greek: ????????? – ?? “good”, ??????? death”), according to the Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, is described as the “easy and painless death or the means for producing one. Advocated by many for those suffering from intractable pain that accompanies the terminal stages of many incurable diseases. A distinction worth noting (in respect to matters legal and ethical) is that drawn between passive euthanasia, when one simply ceases to supply requisite extraordinary support measures needed to keep an individual alive, and active euthanasia, when specific means are taken to terminate life.” (Page 253)

Active Euthanasia, Passive Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide

The distinction between these terms is one of the main discussion points regarding euthanasia and its legal-social effects. The so-called active euthanasia, as previously described, consists in a direct or indirect action with the purpose of ending one’s life. Such actions would include, for example, the injection of a lethal substance into the patient’s bloodstream. The passive euthanasia consists in ceasing life support supplies (or treatment), such as a respiratory tube or a specific medication.

Although this does not constitute in a direct action towards ending one’s life, it does have the same purpose and result. In legal terms, both definitions fall under the same category – and there are people who argue that passive euthanasia is a mis-term of what would be simply another active form of the event. In the other hand, assisted suicide is the term which defines the supply of means to end one’s life. It is almost the same as euthanasia; the difference is that in this case, the patient is responsible for performing the final action which results in his/her own death. This definition comprises the term physician-assisted suicide, which occurs when a doctor assists a patient, whether by giving information or access to means, to commit suicide.

This has been the center of much discussion among several societies, as it represents a paradox to common medical ethics* – and it also raises a discussion of priorities in health care.

*Most doctors are ethically obliged to the Hippocratic Oath, a document written by the famous Greek physician Hippocrates, which states that a doctor shall not provide any means to help producing death.

The ‘Slippery Slope’ Argument

A common person would probably argue that, upon request, an individual should be allowed to choose between life and death. After all, it is a matter of freedom of choice, which is one of the basic principles of a democratic society. However, both euthanasia and assisted suicide invoke a deeper concern in health specialists – a problem commonly called the slippery slope.

According to them, the legalisation of both practices would cause the society to gradually switch their views towards life and death issues involving severely ill, disabled (both mentally and physically) and other patients unable to express their will – allowing euthanasia to be such a common practice that, at some point, patients would feel pressured to end their lives in order to spare resources to maintain them alive, or end their family suffering. In an overall perspective, life would be less valued, and people would become increasingly insensitive to patients in severe conditions.

Palliative Care and the Development of Health Care

Some advocates of the previous argument also affirm that, in a certain period of time, when healthcare has become widely available and non-costly – it would be possible to legalise both euthanasia and assisted suicide. Ideally, those conditions would allow both medical staff and the public to place life care as an ultimate priority. This can be considered as utopian, however, the progressive advances in technology could play a main role in creating this environment.

Current Situation

Until this article was written (2005), only few places in the world legally allow euthanasia and assisted suicide. The only country to approve both practices is the Netherlands. Meanwhile, Switzerland and the US state of Oregon allowed assisted suicide, and in Belgium, only voluntary euthanasia (authorised by the patient) is fully legal. Other areas, including the UK, have been analysing the possibility of legalising one or both of these activities. In 1996, The Rights of the Terminally Ill Act (ROTI) was passed by the Parliament of the Northern Territory by one vote. In 1997, the Australian Parliament overturned the ROTI Bill, and voluntary euthanasia became illegal again.

The discussion around euthanasia remains a polemic and unsolved issue. Several pro-euthanasia institutions have been established throughout the world, and every year, a growing number of patients travel to Switzerland in order to peacefully end their lives. However, researched data has not concluded whether the slippery slope effect will become prominent or not – and whether other issues regarding the legalisation of euthanasia could take place.

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So Who Do You Believe? Pharmaceutical Ethics

Dr Karen asked:

There are various reasons why many people are skeptical about taking prescribed medications. Some believe that there are just too many chemicals in them and would prefer a more natural approach. Others feel that prescribed drugs are being used too freely. What many people have not considered though is the fact that they may be being deceived regarding the quality of the prescribed medications.

We all assume that medical research is documented and properly researched at least when it comes to inventing new drugs and treatments. After all, we have strict government regulations in place to ensure our safety. It appears that we may not be as protected as we may assume.

It has been found that a particular pharmaceutical company has been using employees to ghostwrite research material and then having the appropriate medical personnel attach their names to it thus making it appear as valid research information. Yikes! What makes it even more disturbing is that it doesn’t seem to be an isolated incident. Apparently, there are numerous claims that ghostwriting medical research is a common practice within the pharmaceutical industry.

Not only can this practice be viewed as alarming and dangerous but using another’s research is also unethical. Coming to basic facts, it is downright scary because it involves public health and safety. So far, little news press has been given to the potentially grave consequences of these practices, but the US Food and Drug Administration are now in the process of determining whether to allow the circulation of peer-reviewed journal articles to be used as guides. While in the past physicians have used these articles to determine drugs of choice for a particular patient, the FDA will look into the efficacy and safety of this practice to decide its future worth.

What needs to be taken into consideration is how much attention does the professional signing this research really give to its content? He or she could be recommending a medication that will reach the people at large and could prove not only mildly detrimental but also downright dangerous. After all, professionals are needed in medical and pharmaceutical research to prevent such an eventuality. If their research means so little, then why not dispense with it and let the ghostwriters do the research and clear the drug for open market? All of the current indicators are pointing in this direction right now. No claims can or should be made that this is happening in every pharmaceutical company as they each have individual moral and ethical standards. We the public can only hope that the companies making such prescribed drugs fall into the “good moral” category.

One good aspect is that at least this deception is being brought to light. Other pharmaceutical companies that are walking a fine line on this issue may think twice about the consequences of their actions. For all of our sakes let’s hope that they do.

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The Facts Regarding Ethical Issues with Alternative Therapies

Martin Richfield asked:

No matter what the ailment, condition, or disease, every patient has the right to choice regarding the treatment, even if this means not taking treatment that could be life saving. There are always concerns with having any treatment or taking any medications. Ethical issues with alternative therapies do not necessarily have to be looked at in a negative way.

In fact ethical issues regarding alternative therapies should be thought about as merely just another piece of information to allow patients to make their mind up about the treatments. Any information, positive or negative, surrounding a treatment is a positive thing for the patient. Knowledge is always necessary when making decisions about treatments. Alternative therapies are often used instead of traditional treatments, but are also used frequently in combination with traditional treatments. Therefore, there is knowledge regarding the therapies, the use of the therapies, and how they can affect the traditional treatment.

Some of the existing ethical issues with alternative therapies exist specifically around the area of diet pills and supplements. The concerns about taking supplements of any kind are that they are not regulated like food and prescription drugs are. They can word things differently and market them differently.

However, equipped with this knowledge people seeking the use of a diet supplement or any herbal supplement are less likely to jump into taking something without doing the necessary added research. In addition, some of the treatments and therapists that administer the treatments are not governed or regulated by any national body. Therefore, qualifications are unknown or not met. With this information people can research the technique as well as the technician and can make a decision based upon the credentials that are found.

Ethical issues with alternative therapies definitely come into play when people involved closely with the traditional medical system, for instance a stay in the hospital, who want to use alternative therapies. The nurses, nursing aids, as well as the other medical staff, have to be aware of the interactions between the two types of medical treatment.

Therefore, the knowledge regarding the ethical issues with alternative therapies as well as the benefits and consequences need to be known by the patient and medical professionals. Ethical issues with alternative therapies are just another tool for people to equip themselves with before making a decision about their health and the treatment. Alternative therapies are often an excellent way to gain some relief from a condition or illness when there is the possibility of religious or other belief system values preventing traditional medical treatments.

Ethical Principles in Clinical Research

Raghav asked:

Ethical principles in clinical research

 

Clinical research is defined as trials that evaluate an investigational drug, biological, or medical device on patients in a strictly, scientifically controlled setting in order to test the safety and efficacy of an experimental entity. Clinical research involves controlled use of humans in medical experiments.  As clinical research involves human participants there is a risk of them getting exploited in the name of science, hence sponsors and investigators are legally and ethically obligated to protect them.

In clinical practice a physicians use interventions (medications) that are designed to cure a disease and with the sole purpose of enhancing the wellbeing of an individual. But, clinical research is designed to test a new medication, its effectiveness, to answer useful questions about human health, diseases and it cure.  Here, the participant in a clinical trial may not get the best available treatment and therefore the responsibility of investigator towards the subject s are more.

The Declaration of Helsinki by World Medical Assembly forms the basis of ethical guidelines for clinical research today. It involves 32 principles and informed consent is an essential requirement for ethical conduct of a clinical trial. Also the declaration clearly specifies that “all protocols must be submitted to an ethics committee for review, which must be independent of the investigator, the sponsor or any other kind of undue influence”.

The Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human subjects expects that all institutions in India which carry out any form of research involving human beings should follow the guidelines to protect the safety and wellbeing of all subjects.

A subject taking part in any clinical trial is protected by a written informed consent and ethics committee review. A question generally asked is that- which type of research needs ethics review? Clearly any trial involving humans must be carried out with permission from an ethics committee. It could experimental study involving a new drug or new device or a “simple” questionnaire-based study, in normal subjects or in patients, as long as it involves humans, the investigator must obtain ethics committee permission. If the trial has to be internationally acceptable, papers have to conform to these guidelines.

The application of human values and moral rules to research is ethics. There are very few arguments against the need of ethical review of protocols before starting the research involving humans.

 

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Take a Look at the Issue of Ethics and Medicine

mahendra asked:

The issue of ethics and medicine is very difficult to raise, greatly by Dr S G Kabra, who is a medical practioner, is unusual in that he is very consistently giving a look at the anomalies in the medical profession. In “Medicine Deranged”, he looks at the process through which the public health system has been associated by the powerful, while the private sector is not accessible to the poor. He suggests that there is a parallel between the co-option of the medical profession by the State in India, and medical practice under the Nazis.  The office of graduate studies is located on the university of kansas medical center campus in kansas city and is a unit of the office of academic affairs.

Australia is one of the prominent destinations for students wanting to study abroad. Every year, the number of students want to study in Australia is rising due to the better quality of education, life and job opportunities which rising day by day.  Universities and Colleges in Australia also offer a various diplomas, degree courses of which the Masters Degree takes either 1 or 2 years, and the Doctoral Degree takes about 3 years to complete.  Many Indian students want to study in Singapore and enjoy learning in one of the world’s leading international and commercial hubs. Overseas students wanting to study in Singapore can either apply directly to the universities or can apply via education agents. Applications are accepted all year round by the universities and are subject to the availability of vacancy.

There are particular subjects in Medical Standards which stretches on the theme of medical practice and standardized situations.  It possesses real-life circumstances which raise many questions. Cases includes questions of confidentiality in sensitive areas such as HIV and pre-marital pregnancies; weighing the right to work against the risks of infection, in the case of a person with tuberculosis. The cases include the responsibility of doctors to keep or maintain some secrecy.

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Ethics against Alternative Medicines Not Necessarily Reasonable

Martin Richfield asked:

Ethics can be defined as a philosophical mentality of right conduct and good living. Ethics in medicine are typically about what is appropriate practice and inappropriate practice. It defines specifics about what is allowed in the workplace, in the profession, and with clients.

However, the medical field is in fact, a business. Just like alternative medicines is a business. In fact, they are somewhat competing businesses. They are each other’s competition. Ethics against alternative medicines are typically produced and written by people in the traditional medical field. Therefore, the information that is read should be looked at with a grain of salt.

Ethics against alternative medicines should be analyzed by using the information about who wrote the article, what their objective might be, and where they produced the information. Of course some of the information may be true and in that case, the information should be available on many different places or by the alternative medicines companies as well.

The other concern with ethics against alternative medicines is that their root may be founded in different countries and different cultures. Just because something is different does not mean that it is less. The ethics against alternative medicines should be analyzed clearly. The ethics in any profession should be governed and determined by that profession.

The medical field has been around for a really long time and therefore has had centuries to come up with their code of ethics. The area of alternative therapies is a relatively new field within the United States and therefore needs some more time for each of the different elements of that field to develop a code of ethics. The countries in which the alternative medicines have originated are not necessarily governed with the same standards as the United States and therefore have never determined a set of standards. This does not necessarily mean that they are not as effective.

The ethics against alternative medicines should not try and deter people from accessing these services. If someone wishes to publish information regarding specific therapies, then it should be information that is set out in a way to help the consumer, not to tell the consumer what the best decision is. The people accessing treatments are smart and capable of weight the pros and cons and making reasonable decisions. There are definitely elements of the field of alternative medicines that do have codes of conduct and ethics. For example, psychology and chiropractic medicine definitely have standards, as well as acupuncture and acupressure.

They just may not meet the same standards as the traditional medical profession. The ironic thing is that traditional medicine in China and other places are alternative medicines in America. So that leaves the question, what makes medicine traditional or alternative?

Health Care Ethics: Paramount To Good Health Care

Roland Jefferson III asked:

This interesting article addresses some of the key issues regarding health care ethics. A careful reading of this material could make a big difference in how you think about health care ethics.

You can see that there’s practical value in learning more about medical care management. Can you think of ways to apply what’s been covered so far?

When you’re learning about something new, it’s easy to feel overwhelmed by the sheer amount of relevant information available. This informative article should help you focus on the central points.

If you base what you do on inaccurate information, you might be unpleasantly surprised by the consequences. Make sure you get the whole medical care ethics story from informed sources.

Many people don’t ever think about health care ethics when they visit their doctor’s office or hospital. That’s more than likely because all of their health care providers practice good health ethics. That means that they care for their patients without prejudice, without malice and they do whatever they do with the best interest of the patient in mind. Health ethics are important to every aspect of the health care industry, from ambulance drivers to heart and brain surgeons. Without medical ethics, the world as we know it would be drastically different, with everyone frightened to go to the doctor or the hospital for fear of their own safety and well being.

A Frightening Thought

What if you went to your doctor and you were never told about a certain drug that could help your ailments merely because he or she wanted you to keep coming back, which would require an office visit fee each time? Or, what if you went for a physical exam and were fondled? Or, what if your doctor tried a new experimental technique on you without you knowing about it and you ended up disabled or worse? Any one of these things would enrage most people and rightfully so. You now see why health care ethics are so important.

When doctors and other medical professionals get their individual licenses to practice whatever form of medical care they are educated in, they must take an oath stating that they will promise to practice good medical care management. This is meant to protect the patient from any unethical practices, which would give health protection in general a very bad name. It’s important for anyone practicing any aspect of health care to have good health care ethics. The patients, after all, pay their salaries so it’s important to treat them with care and the utmost respect.

However, just because an oath is taken, doesn’t mean that all doctors and health care providers are ethical. There are always a few bad eggs in the bunch. You need to watch out for any questionable health care ethics practiced by your health care provider. If you notice anything you are uncomfortable about, tell someone immediately. Most health care providers do practice good medical care so you should rest easy knowing that you are in good hands whenever you visit your local doctor or hospital.

That’s the latest from the health management authorities. Once you’re familiar with these ideas, you’ll be ready to move to the next level.

Don’t limit yourself by refusing to learn the details about medical care standards. The more you know, the easier it will be to focus on what’s important.